Heart (cardia)

A muscular organ comprising 4 chambers, located in the center of the chest, between the two lungs, with the apex pointing downwards and to the left.

It is divided by an impermeable septum into two parts, the left and the right heart, .

It is also divided into two compartments (upper and lower) called atria (vestibules) and ventricles.

A one-way valve separates each ventricle from its corresponding atrium.

The heart functions as a pump, which propels blood into the vessels of the body. The right heart pumps oxygen-depleted blood returning from the body organs into the lungs, while the left heart’s function is propelling oxygen-enriched blood coming from the lungs into all body organs.

This process is accomplished in the following manner: Oxygen-depleted blood is drained from the organs by the venous system and reaches the right atrium. From there it flows to the right ventricle and when the ventricle contracts it is propelled into the Pulmonary artery.

In the lungs, gas exchange takes place and blood is oxygenated.

The oxygen- enriched blood is transported by the Pulmonary veins to the left ventricle and by the contraction of the latter it is pumped directly into the Aorta, which by means of its many branches supplies oxygen rich blood to all organs of the body.

The synchronized activity of the different heart chambers is possible thanks to the electrical conductive system, which signals and stimulates the contraction and relaxation of the heart muscle.